Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Collapse Of Compassion Theory - 2561 Words

The world of today has been a witness to countless menacing wars, violence, and tragedies, but the amount of sympathy and compassion the people feel towards it has significantly decreased. In fact, it is believed by many that capacity of compassion is limited and so the lack of consideration for other’s suffering is part of human nature. Psychologists such as C. Daryl Cameron and Keith Payne have developed the collapse of compassion theory, described in the article, â€Å"How to Increase Your Compassion Bandwidth,† that suggests that people are growing to become indifferent and less empathetic towards major moments in history of inhumane behavior. The apathetic attitude individuals have towards tragedies is not a phenomenon only seen in the recent years, but in fact can be traced to about seventy years ago, in the midst of the Holocaust. The Holocaust was carried out by Adolf Hitler and his Nazi reign, between 1933 and 1945, which brought upon the world a massive genoci de that almost killed the entire Jewish population of Europe. For nearly twelve years, Jewish people were isolated from society with discriminative laws, thrown into crowded and unsanitary ghettos, and then shipped into concentration camps where they met their deaths. The Jews were endlessly slaughtered in a cruel manner, but yet hardly any people cried out for its injustice. The behavior of the Nazis was condoned by most of the German people who supported its reign and even the prisoners of the death camps beganShow MoreRelatedThe Fashion Industry And Manufacturing Process842 Words   |  4 PagesFashionable apparel begins as the aesthetic brainchild of a designer (or team of designers). And as the item(s) gain life, each works its way through the many facets of the manufacturing process. The Fashioned Body: Fashion, Dress, Modern Social Theory notes that â€Å"to understand fashion, it is necessary to go beyond the discussion of pure aesthetics. It is a chain of [events], which are industrial, economic and cultural, as well as aesthetic† (p. 220). Simply put, the fashion industry and manufacturingRead MorePersonal Ethical Development Essay1139 Words   |  5 PagesPersonal Ethical Development Given the almost collapse of the very foundation of the financial industry in the United States which then rapidly metastasized to a financial and economic crisis with global proportions, ethics and ethical behaviours in doing business and the lack of it was one of the major factors why the mortgage meltdown happened. Thus, it is even more necessary now that organizations focus on the personal ethical developments of all of its individual members. This paper aimsRead MoreDifferent Types Of Leadership Characteristics1376 Words   |  6 Pagesphysically and psychologically. They are approachable to the point that there will be moments that those reporting to them will be having problems outside of work that will influence them. Death of family, friends, and associates, also relationships collapse and all kinds of life disaster will disturb almost everybody at work at times. Emotionally exposed and confident leaders comprehend that they are there for support during these times. Leaders possessing self-confidence and high emotional intelligenceRead MoreMigration Essay1750 Words   |  7 Pagescommonly attributed to the out-group. Tajifel’s social identity theory helps explain how a member of an in-group identifies its own self-esteem with that of their group, thus is motivated to maintain positive status for the group and helping their own kind. Tajifel’s minimal group paradigm research has shown, that even on a small scale, once an individual identifies with a group their preference will lie there. The social categorization theory 1987 emphasizing the strong cognitive process by which oneRead MoreShould World Be A Low Standard Of Living With Wine And Beef?1144 Words   |  5 Pageswar. We look at our neighbours and want what they have. The Tragedy Of The Commons is a good example of the greed that would be seen in a highly populated world, people would want more to make more, just the same as others, causing the commons to collapse and allow poverty (or the bread diet) to ensue. (Hardin) We all want more, we want a better standard of living, and we want our beef, wine and gadgets too. The problem is if we go beyond carrying capacity and live a sustainable life, we will allRead MoreRelationship Between The Principle Of Utility And Moral Rules1462 Words   |  6 Pagesutility in complex moral situations. In this essay I will also argue for the advantages of Mill’s understanding of the relationship between the two concepts as it incorporates religious moral rules, help s prevent ‘evil’ acts, and creates an ethical theory suitable and practical for daily use. Mill’s predecessor, Jeremy Bentham is an act utilitarian who looks at the consequences of each individual act and calculates utility each time the act is performed. In contrast, Mill is a rule utilitarian whoRead MoreWhat Does It Mean to Be Well Educated Essay1027 Words   |  5 Pagesframe on the wall. Those that are not college graduates are the ones that will be able to survive if ever comes a time when the world collapses. Well educated is a balance between academics and practical knowledge it is more than knowing about the E=MC2 or the theory of relativity. It is knowing how to live and love yourself and others in a world where love and compassion is needed and keeping your faith harder than ever. A piece of paper from an Ivy League school is not what makes you educated it isRead MorePublished In Examinerlike Gestalt Therapy Which Was Introduced1618 Words   |  7 Pagesor unhealthy and had to be cured. The second wave of psychology introduced the behaviorists or learning theorists. The behaviorists felt that like the previous theories of Freud, much of our behavior is instinctual; however, they also went further to say most of our behavior is learned. Pavlov s dogs is an example of behaviorist theories. Behavioral psychologists postulate that to change your thinking you must first do something different. For example, lying around the house and feeling sorryRead MoreVirtue Ethics Application to Bus iness Ethics Essay1554 Words   |  7 Pagesby Macintyre, who would argue that money is not the end rather a means to a further end of social responsibility. Kindness would be an important virtue to own, and with this character trait you would expect the individual to shown compassion and lovingness in a situation. For example is it acceptable to sack able workers purely because they are excess to needs of the company and by saving money on there wages you can earn more for yourself. The virtuous answer wouldRead MoreFranz Kafkas Novella, The Metamorphosis Essay1199 Words   |  5 Pagescares about this family, working hard to support them, even though they do little for themselves. On the surface, Kafkas 1916 novella, seems to be just a tale of Gregor morphing into a cockroach, but, a closer reading with Marx and Engels economic theories in mind, reveals an imposing metaphor that gives the improbable story a great deal of relevance to the structure of Marxist society. Samsa, the protagonist, signifies the proletariat, or the working class, and his unnamed manager represents the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparing mortgage rates Example

Essays on Comparing mortgage rates Research Paper Finance and Accounting A comparison was completed between five separate mortgage lenders using rates for fifteen yearand 30 year fixed rate mortgages, with a financed amount of $100,000 in the State of Florida. Geographical information was used only on with those lenders who requested it before providing a rate. These rates were then converted into effective annual rates. Lender 15 YR EAR 30 YR EAR Bank of America 3.500 3.905% 4.250 4.505% Lending Tree 2.75 2.97% 3.63 3.75% GMAC 3.250 3.555% 4.0 4.121% Chase Bank 3.625 3.789% 4.375 4.492% AmeriSave 2.750 2.991% 3.250 3.505% There are number of common mistakes individuals make when looking at quoted mortgage rates and shopping for mortgage rates. Mortgage quotes that are published such as these are usually rates and terms available under the best of circumstance while your rate will vary according to: credit, down payment, house location and size, and your ability to prove income and assets Verbal rates are not a guarantee and you must get a written quote if you want to be assured the rate is ‘locked’ in and you should always get a letter of confirmation of your rate, rates that go up between the start of your mortgage process and the closing date can cost you thousands of dollars over the life of your loan Do not assume that because you are offered at good rate on one type of loan that you will get the same rate on a different type of mortgage Many people do not consider closing costs and fees when shopping for a mortgage Based on the effective annual rate the Lending tree offers the best rate for a fifteen year fixed interest rate loan. This amount is the percentage paid per year on the mortgage over the lifetime of the loan. AmeriSave offers the lowest effective annual rate on a thirty year mortgage. Paying some of the interest in advance can reduce the accrual over the course of the year. Any fees or penalties that you accrue during the loan are added to the principle and will increase the EAR. These effective annual rates make sense as being the lowest because they are also in line with the lowest rates. Different lenders are able to offer different rates somewhat based on what type of lender they are, a mortgage lender or mortgage broker, each charging a different commission rate on the loan. Mortgage broker do not actually lend money and are used to help an individual find a direct loan, charging the consumer a fee for this service. While this is advantageous in that they will shop many lenders for you in an attempt to gain the best rate you will pay the associated fees, which are usually between 0.5-1 % of the loan value. The difference in rate will have a material impact on the consumer because the value of the property will either decrease or increase with the market over the course of the loan. Investors may choose 30 year investment mortgages over other options because the value of the dollar while continue to decrease while the investment property and amount of payment remains the same. This is due to inflation of the economy and other market factors. References Todays Rate Results. (2012). Bank of America. Retrieved 2012, from Mortgage - Home Loans - Refinance - Mortgage Refinancing - Mortgage Rates - Home Equity. (2012). Retrieved 2012, from Mortgage, Refinancing, Home Loan, Mortgage Rates - GMAC Mortgage. (2012). Retrieved 2012, from Chase Mortgages - Home Lending | New or Refinance Mortgage Loans Online. (2012). CHASE Home: Personal Banking | Personal Lending | Retirement Investing | Business Banking. Retrieved 2012, from

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Factors Consider When Choosing Sample Size â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Factors To Consider When Choosing A Sample Size? Answer: Introducation One of the advantages of a large sample size is that it helps in reducing the margin of error hence improving the accuracy of the results from the sample. According to Cleary et al (2014), this will always make the population parameter to lie within the confidence interval of the point estimator. Being that the sample size chosen for the survey was 15,000, it was most likely to obtain more accurate information from the bank workers pertaining stress as compared to when smaller sample size would have been used by the two research institutions i.e. Katholike Universteit Leuven and the private company in Belgium. Additionally, large sample sizes are important in that they are representative of the wider range of elements contained in the population. Due to this therefore, all or most of the outliers will be captured in the sample unlike when the sample is size is small Belli et al (2014). One major disadvantage of large sample is its costly nature. Reaching and covering a wider proportion of the population involves high expense incurred in the process Goodman et al (2013). The Union of Belgian Banks would therefore incur much through the assigned research institutes in the data collection from the targeted 15,000 bank workers. Being that the participants were not found from the same bank institution, the process would also be time consuming to get to various parts of the country for other bank workers. Cost that will be involved in obtaining the sample is one among other factors that should be considered when coming up with which sample size to use in a survey. The risk involved in the values collected from the sample will also act as the determinant of the sample size i.e. if only the risk value matters in the collected values then as a result therefore, low risk values will call for large sample sizes. Prior information about the topic of study will also help in either reducing or increasing the sample size since prior estimates of means and variances will be used to help dealing with variation that could be found within groups (Button et al, 2013). Sampling Methods Sampling method is the process by which representative groups are selected from the population that is being studied. In the selection of the 15,000 bank workers for the sample by the research institutions, they used stratified sampling method. One of the advantages of the currently used sampling method by the institutions is that the sampling method minimizes sampling errors Ye et al (2013). This is achieved though dividing the population into subgroups called strata. The strata are spread to ensure that each characteristic of the population is represented by the strata and having the elements in each stratum selected by simple random sampling hence reducing sample selection bias. Also, stratified sampling method ensures that the targeted population is highly represented in the sample. Difficulty to identify ways of subdividing the population into subpopulations makes it at times unusable by the researchers, where this forms one of the major disadvantages. Additionally, stratified s ampling method is time consuming where a lot of time is spent in the identification of the strata and then later select the sample from each strata through simple random sampling method (Acharya et al, 2013). In relation to the situation at hand, the research institutions i.e. the private specialized company in stress at work and Katholike Universteit Leuven, they first had to identify all the bank institutions in Belgium then divide the workers according to their bank institutions to form strata where further, the workers were now to be selected from the bank institutions through simple random sampling method to provide equal chances of obtaining the workers that will form the useable subset of the population. In order to improve the effectiveness of this sampling method (stratified sampling method), I therefore suggest that the number of strata to be increased. This will increase from where sampling of the individuals in the population will be selected hence representing almost th e entire population thus reducing the marginal error in sampling. Research Design Cross-sectional design is a tool used by the researchers to obtain specific point time information from the collected data. It has some of the advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages as noted by (Shen and Bjrk, 2015) is that the cross-sectional research design through cross-sectional study can help in ascertaining the worthiness of assumptions in the study. Also, as compared to other research designs, cross-sectional design is less time consuming. Since information is for specific point time of the already collected information, it therefore take cross-sectional research design less time to identify information of interest. Furthermore, the research design inexpensive. Unlike cross-sectional research design, longitudinal design has the potential to display the pattern of variable or variables for a certain period of time as it major advantage. Disadvantages of cross-sectional design is that it cannot be relied on to predict the relationship between and the findings this is due to it lacking the time element since it only measures point time information. Prevalence as a result of extended period of time cases, these are seen from the cases that exist for a long period of time and they may be perceived less serious. On the other hand therefore, longitudinal research design is more expensive since it covers a long period of time. Longitudinal design is as well time consuming due to its ability to predict pattern over period of time. Also, when the expected outcomes are less, longitudinal design becomes less efficient (Shen and Bjrk, 2015). Procedure of Data Collection In the collection of data from the bank workers, the research institutions used questionnaires that were structured with questions where the respondents were only required to give their responses on the provided spaces. Just like any other method of data collection methods, collection of data through questionnaires face some of the problems that need to be addressed. According to Chernick et al (2011), respondents dishonesty is one of the major problems that questionnaires have. Respondents can decide not to be truthful when they are responding to the questions with the fear that their identities can be disclosed to the public. This can tamper with the accuracy and reliability of the results if such happens in the process of data collection. To eradicate this problem, the researcher is supposed to assure the participants who take part in the process that their privacy is highly valued and that they be kept private without access of any unauthorized persons. When this is effected, such problems would not reoccur or they will reduce in future. Being that the questionnaires were prepared by the research institutions and distributed to various banks in the country, there was no physical touch or face to face communication between the researchers and he respondents, the respondents will respond to the questions according to their own understanding of the questions and interpretations. For the same results intended by the subject of study, the questions if not clarified may not result to the common understanding. This can be as a result of unclear questions to the respondents. This problem therefore can be dealt with by the researcher through creating or composing questions that are easy and simple to understand and answer. Difficulty of the questions to analyze is another problem that questionnaires have. When constructing the questions in the questionnaire, if the questionnaire happen to contain so many open ended questions, this will call for the opinion of the respondents hence cannot be coded during the analysis process. This occur more often whenever there are open ended questions and peoples opinions vary from one individual to another thus resulting to too much data that cannot be handled with ease and analyzed. This problem therefore can be dealt with and corrected by coming up with good question types that are close ended and that will allow for multiple choices that can be coded for easy analysis. Face to face communication has been so effective in that one can be able see the emotions of a person through facial expressions, but with questionnaires it is difficult to capture such emotional responses that are expressed by the respondents especially when the questionnaire is administered thus data that could be observed from the respondents on their body language would be lost or go unnoticed. This particular type of problem can be combated by constructing questionnaires that have Likert scale that would be used to rate the attitude, feelings or emotions of the respondents. At some times, the provided questions in the questionnaires are not always responded to. The respondents may decide to skip some of the questions due to their own reasons and submit the questionnaire forms with the skipped questions unanswered. For the case of online survey, they normally come with clear solution to such kind of problem. They simply make all the fields for the questions required without which the respondent cannot proceed to the next step or the form cannot be submitted. But for the case of our research question questionnaires, we can combat this problem by constructing uncomplicated questions and above all make the survey short, this will help increase the completion rates. Accessibility to the questionnaires is another major problem that is faced when data is collected using questionnaires. Questionnaires do not always take care of people with some forms of disabilities such as visual or hearing impairment. Such people are not suitable to use the questionnaires and this can be corrected by using questionnaires whose accessibility options are built in. Secondary Data Secondary data are second hand information that are obtained from the database archives. Depending on the subject of study, secondary data that will be used must be relevant to the subject of study. Also, before the secondary data is used to check for the representativeness of the sample, competency and accuracy of the data to the subject of the study must be first checked and confirmed, this is according to Piwowar and Vision (2013). Using secondary gives the researcher a clear picture of what he/ she expects and therefore saves time. Most of the secondary data are always obtained from the databases where they are stored making their retrieval easy and cheaper as compared to collecting primary data. Secondary data that were funded and collected by the government are in most cases involving large samples which result to the increased statistical precision since larger proportion of the population is represented. Understanding secondary data can be done through reading the manuals that are stored alongside the data where thereafter they should be prepared for use in checking for representativeness. All variables and the treatment of missing data should be appropriately addressed to hold the meaning of data. Suitable sampling design mostly probabilistic sampling designs are supposed to be applied where since the sample is large, stratified sampling method is seen appropriate since it always represent more items from the population. Statistical analysis to be used is supposed to be ensured that it reflects the sampling design that was used where the point estimates such as means, variance and standard deviations should be in a manner that they cater for unequal sampling probabilities. The obtained secondary point estimators are then compared to the primary point estimators of the subject of study. If they are onto each other or too close to one another, then there will be confidence that the ob tained point estimators are the reflection of the population parameter and thus the data is representative. References Acharya, A.S., Prakash, A., Saxena, P. and Nigam, A., 2013. Sampling: Why and how of it.Indian Journal of Medical Specialties,4(2), pp.330-333. Belli, S., Newman, A.B. and Ellis, R.S., 2014. Velocity dispersions and dynamical masses for a large sample of quiescent galaxies at z 1: Improved measures of the growth in mass and size.The Astrophysical Journal,783(2), p.117. Button, K.S., Ioannidis, J.P., Mokrysz, C., Nosek, B.A., Flint, J., Robinson, E.S. and Munaf, M.R., 2013. Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience.Nature Reviews Neuroscience,14(5), pp.365-376. Chernick, M.R., Gonzlez-Manteiga, W., Crujeiras, R.M. and Barrios, E.B., 2011. Bootstrap methods. InInternational Encyclopedia of Statistical Science(pp. 169-174). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Cleary, M., Horsfall, J. and Hayter, M., 2014. Data collection and sampling in qualitative research: does size matter?.Journal of advanced nursing,70(3), pp.473-475. Goodman, J.K., Cryder, C.E. and Cheema, A., 2013. Data collection in a flat world: The strengths and weaknesses of Mechanical Turk samples.Journal of Behavioral Decision Making,26(3), pp.213-224. Khberger, A., Fritz, A. and Scherndl, T., 2014. Publication bias in psychology: a diagnosis based on the correlation between effect size and sample size.PloS one,9(9), p.e105825. Piwowar, H.A. and Vision, T.J., 2013. Data reuse and the open data citation advantage.PeerJ,1, p.e175. Shen, C. and Bjrk, B.C., 2015. Predatoryopen access: a longitudinal study of article volumes and market characteristics.BMC medicine,13(1), p.230. Ye, Y., Wu, Q., Huang, J.Z., Ng, M.K. and Li, X., 2013. Stratified sampling for feature subspace selection in random forests for high dimensional data. Pattern Recognition,46(3), pp.769-787.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Red Badge Of Courage Stephen Crane Essays - The Red Badge Of Courage

Red Badge of CourageStephen Crane HarcourtNew York 1960206 p. I. Storyline 1. Henry Fleming, a farmer and a nobody, wanted to become a hero in war and have girls loving him for his glorious achievements in battle. So Henry decides to join the Union army, during the Civil War. He knew his mother would not like to see him go to war, but it was his decision to make. So he enlists in the Union army. H makes friends with two other soldiers, John Wilson and Jim Conklin. Wilson was as exited about going to war as Henry, while Jim was confident about the success of the new regiment. Henry started to realize after a few days of marching, that their regiment was just wandering aimlessly, going in circles, like a vast blue demonstration. He started to become afraid that he might run from battle when duty calls. When the regiment finally discovers a battle taking place, Jim gives Henry a little packet in a yellow envelope, telling Henry that his will be his first and last battle. The regiment managed to hold off the rebels for the first charge, but then the rebels came back with reenforcements, driving the regiment back. One man started to flee, then another, and another still. Henry was scared, confused, and in a trance as he saw his forces shrinking. He finally got up and started running like a chicken. In the charge ahead, Henry starts asking the soldiers why they are running. He grabbed a comrade by the arm and asked the man "why" not letting go of the mans arm, so the man hit Henry over the head with the butt of his rifle, giving Henry his first Red Badge of Courage. At his regiment he confronts Wilson. After a short rest he again gets back into battle. After the regiment lost that battle, the generals had the regiment marching again. Henry begins to feel that, he and Wilson, are going to die, but goes to battle anyway He was not going to be badgered of his life.. In yet another battle, when Henry and Wilson get a chance to carry their flag, they fight over who will retain the flag. Wilson got the regiment flag, though later in battle Henry manages to obtain the rebel flag. And from there, runs to the front of the line with the Lieutenant, leading the way. 2. Their regiment keeps getting moved back and our losing the battle. But even worse, their men are running away. 3. After they rest, henry and Wilson motivate the regiment enough for them to win the last battle as they lead the regiment with their flag. 4. Henry Fleming, Jim Conklin and John Wilson 5. It is told in 1st person. 6. The battle scenes are hilly, grassy, and many trees around. Most of the battlefields where taken place in Virginia. 7. 1895 8. Of course the Civil War. 9. Slavery and war debts. II. Henry is a hero, which was his dream. He helped the regiment win the battle and motivated them so they would have more moral.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Rubin v Coors Brewing Co essays

Rubin v Coors Brewing Co essays CASE CITATION: Rubin v. Coors Brewing Co. (514 US 476), 1995 The rules and principals of commercial law are of ancient origin. Throughout the centuries merchants engaged in trade and commerce have recognized customs and usages which regulate and control their conduct. Gradually over the years a body of law developed... (Robert Bicentennial of our Republic, the Courts position was reversed and they declared that the First Amendment protects commercial speech. But they court did say that commercial speech should receive less protection then noncommercial speech. That brings us to the definitions of commercial and noncommercial speech. Noncommercial speech, embodied in the phrases freedom of speech and freedom of expression, is entitled to virtually full first amendment protection; hence, the speaker is granted considerable latitude in stating a position...Commercial speech is generally considered to be communications that have the sale of a product or service as their ultimate goal. Content regulation of commercial speech is allowed to prevent false, deceptive, or misleading information from being transmitted(Boedecker and Morgan, 1). Some cases that have affected the First Amendment and Commercial speech are: Valentine v. Chrestensen (1942), the U.S. Supreme Court first declared that the Constitution placed no restraints on government regulation of commercial advertising. Until this time there wasnt anything that distinguished between commercial and noncommercial communications. Then in 1975 in Bigelow v. Virginia the court said that the, the government cannot restrict advertising where the commercial activity itself is legal and further noted that the ...activity adverti...

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Decisions in Paradise Part II Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Decisions in Paradise Part II - Research Paper Example The current investigation looks at applications and solutions in reference to the case, focusing on specific steps in the Step- ladder method of decision-making. The situation we face in the organization, with my partners, is one in which the company must be careful about its expansion into Kava. Since our company is considering Kava seriously as a location of interest and heightened presence, â€Å"That greater presence could take various forms, based on what’s good for our company and what’s good for the people of Kava. You and I get the chance to analyze, synthesize, and prescribe regarding that decision† (Case, 2009). It is important to remember that what we are doing is going into a new territory. We need to leave some of our assumptions about dominance and leadership behind, and be more collaborative, if we are going to be respected in this new territory. The Step Ladder method of decision-making can help us in Kava, because it equalizes decisions and makes sure that there is full contribution and teamwork among interested parties. â€Å"This results in a wider variety of ideas, it prevents people from "hiding" within the group, and it helps people avoid being "stepped on" or overpowered by stronger, louder group members† (Stepladder, 2009). One of the main problems addressed in the proposed expansion of our company, is that of seeing how the Step- ladder method affects decision-making in organizations. Leaders can creatively help along the team dynamic by making decisions, in defining what they do. There may be a period of quality assessment in which management leaders may discuss various ways in which to help team players feel an increasing sense of motivation and the drive to succeed in a positive context by helping leaders with feedback and taking the initiative to present new ideas. The Stepladder method stresses that a r elaxed and balanced atmosphere is

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Ethics in research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ethics in research - Essay Example Two: Do voluntary participation, informed consent, risk of harm, confidentiality, and anonymity (Trochim) pretty much cover the bases for ethical research on human subjects? Whether quantitative or qualitative research approaches are employed to study human phenomena, the knowledge quest rests on the thing of the quest--the object of study. Whether researchers, ethics committees, the public, or others like it or not, human subjects become objects in the service of discovering, confirming, or advancing knowledge. Objectification comes with all that is the research enterprise. If, however, in a clinical or confidential study, a subject, or we can now say object, is not treated per proper procedure and respect, there may be cause for complaint. Any ethics violation may then have to be determined by those closest to what was actually proposed and done. Davidsons question seems more philosophical than practical. It may not be nice or politically correct to objectify people in some ideal world or in some contexts, but in the end for research we do it, just as we do it elsewhere in our lives (e.g., picture the finals in a body building competition). Voluntary participation, informed consent, risk of harm, confidentiality, and anonymity are not the only matters for care in planning and conducting research involving human subjects. No doubt any ethics committee or listing of standards, rules, or procedures would specify these and others, and in some detail. However, there is at least one additional base to cover regardless of the group to be satisfied or the expectations to be met. The expectation or standard should be articulated that ethics should be addressed whenever researching human subjects. This may seem redundant, but if not stated in whatever fashion the governing or advisory body wishes to, not having some self-referential language about the